(Phys.org)—A trio of researchers, two with the University of North Carolina and the other with the University of Kentucky, has conducted two kinds of experiments with results suggesting that income inequality in a society can lead those on the bottom to take more risks in hopes of increasing their position. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Keith Payne, Jason Hannay and Jazmin Brown-Iannuzz describe their experiments and why they believe their results indicate that rising inequality in the world today could lead to a range of poor outcomes. Credit: CC0 Public Domain © 2017 Phys.org Explore further Citation: Study suggests income inequality pushes people to take greater risks (2017, April 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-04-income-inequality-people-greater.html More information: B. Keith Payne et al. Economic inequality increases risk taking, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2017). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616453114AbstractRising income inequality is a global trend. Increased income inequality has been associated with higher rates of crime, greater consumer debt, and poorer health outcomes. The mechanisms linking inequality to poor outcomes among individuals are poorly understood. This research tested a behavioral account linking inequality to individual decision making. In three experiments (n = 811), we found that higher inequality in the outcomes of an economic game led participants to take greater risks to try to achieve higher outcomes. This effect of unequal distributions on risk taking was driven by upward social comparisons. Next, we estimated economic risk taking in daily life using large-scale data from internet searches. Risk taking was higher in states with greater income inequality, an effect driven by inequality at the upper end of the income distribution. Results suggest that inequality may promote poor outcomes, in part, by increasing risky behavior. It is no secret that those on the lower end of the economic spectrum would like to move higher, nor is it a secret that the income inequality gap is growing in many countries across the globe. To learn more about the possible real-world impact of this change the researchers carried out two types of experiments designed to learn more about the behavior of those living below the standard of those at the top.The first type of experiment consisted of asking online volunteers to play a gambling game. Players were shown what they believed to be the average results of previous players—half of the volunteers were told that the best players earned significantly more than other players, while the other half were told the winnings gap was relatively small. Each of the volunteers was then asked how much they felt they needed to win to feel like they had done well and then were given a chance to play by placing bets where they could win real-world money. The betting options were arranged such that the greater the risk, the bigger the potential payoff.In studying how the volunteers performed, the researchers found that those who were told that prior players had won a lot more than other players tended to place riskier bets, hopefully leading to bigger rewards—they also generally expressed a higher need to win than the other players.To learn more about real-world conditions, the researchers studied Google search string data regarding risky behavior and financial gain, such as people searching for information about lottery winning, or other ways to win money. They found that people who lived in states where the income gap was the highest tended to conduct many more such searches.The researchers conclude by suggesting that exposure to high-income lifestyles entices lower-income people to engage in risky behavior in attempting to lift themselves higher. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Study results suggest people are less cooperative in unequal societies when wealth inequality is evident
Examples of AEGIS target selection, collected from Martian day 1400 to 1660. Targets outlined in blue were rejected; those outlined in red were retained. Top-ranked targets are shaded green, and second-ranked targets are shaded orange. Credit: Francis et al., Sci. Robot. 2, eaan4582 (2017) (A) The ChemCam gaze. (B) ChemCam shoots lasers at rocks to analyze their content, leaving visible marks both on the surface (upper right) and inside the 16-mm-diameter drill hole (center) of this “Windjana” drill site. (C) ChemCam-measured soil targets. (D) The Remote Micro-Imager on ChemCam shoots high-focus photos of distant targets, such as this area in the Peace Vallis alluvial fan, approximately 25 km away. Credit: Francis et al., Sci. Robot. 2, eaan4582 (2017) Taking only 21,000 of the Curiosity mission’s total 3.8 million lines of code, AEGIS accurately selected desired targets over 2.5 kilometers of unexplored Martian terrain 93% of the time, compared to the 24% expected without the software. In this case, the desired target was outcrop, a type of Martian rock that’s ideal for analyzing the red planet’s geological history. Credit: Carla Schaffer / AAAS (Phys.org)—A team of researchers form the U.S., Denmark and France has created a report regarding the creation and use of software meant to give exploratory robots in space more autonomy. In their paper published in the journal Science Robotics, the team describes the software, called Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science (AEGIS), and how well it performed on the Mars rover Curiosity. Because of their limited computing power and distance from the Earth, space scientists believe that it would be advantageous for exploratory robots to have the ability to select which things to study. It would also allow for more research to be done when a robot is not able to communicate with Earth, such as when it is on the opposite face of a planet. Without such a system, a robot would have to scan a region, photograph it, send the photographic images back to Earth and then wait for instructions on what to do. With such a system, a robot such as Curiosity could scan the horizon, pick an object to study and then drive over and study it. This approach would save a lot of time, allowing the robot to study more objects before its useful lifespan expires. Because of that, NASA commissioned a team to create such software, which eventually became AEGIS. The software was tested and then uploaded to Curiosity in May of 2016 and was used 54 times over the next 11 months.The software allows the rover to control what has been dubbed the ChemCam, which is a device that is used to study rocks or other geologic features—a laser is fired at a target and then sensors measure the gases that occur as a result. Examples of AEGIS fixing human commands that miss the mark, called “autonomous pointing refinement.” (A, C) Human-calculated targets in red. (B, D) Target refinement by AEGIS indicated in red. Credit: Francis et al., Sci. Robot. 2, eaan4582 (2017) Explore further Play An animated representation of the Mars Curiosity rover. Its AEGIS software directs ChemCam to laser desired geological targets. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech The researchers report that they found the system to be 93 percent accurate compared to 24 percent without its use. The software, they claim, saved many hours of mission time, which was used for engaging in other useful activities such as studying meteorite content. They also report that the software allowed for an increase in ChemCam targeting from 256 per day to 327, which meant that more data was collected in the same amount of time. © 2017 Phys.org Journal information: Science Robotics Curiosity Mars rover can choose laser targets on its own This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Citation: Software on Mars rover allows it to pick research targets autonomously (2017, June 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-06-software-mars-rover-autonomously.html More information: AEGIS autonomous targeting for ChemCam on Mars Science Laboratory: Deployment and results of initial science team use, Science Robotics (2017). robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup … /scirobotics.aan4582AbstractLimitations on interplanetary communications create operations latencies and slow progress in planetary surface missions, with particular challenges to narrow–field-of-view science instruments requiring precise targeting. The AEGIS (Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science) autonomous targeting system has been in routine use on NASA’s Curiosity Mars rover since May 2016, selecting targets for the ChemCam remote geochemical spectrometer instrument. AEGIS operates in two modes; in autonomous target selection, it identifies geological targets in images from the rover’s navigation cameras, choosing for itself targets that match the parameters specified by mission scientists the most, and immediately measures them with ChemCam, without Earth in the loop. In autonomous pointing refinement, the system corrects small pointing errors on the order of a few milliradians in observations targeted by operators on Earth, allowing very small features to be observed reliably on the first attempt. AEGIS consistently recognizes and selects the geological materials requested of it, parsing and interpreting geological scenes in tens to hundreds of seconds with very limited computing resources. Performance in autonomously selecting the most desired target material over the last 2.5 kilometers of driving into previously unexplored terrain exceeds 93% (where ~24% is expected without intelligent targeting), and all observations resulted in a successful geochemical observation. The system has substantially reduced lost time on the mission and markedly increased the pace of data collection with ChemCam. AEGIS autonomy has rapidly been adopted as an exploration tool by the mission scientists and has influenced their strategy for exploring the rover’s environment. (A) The ChemCam gaze. (B) ChemCam shoots lasers at rocks to analyze their content, leaving visible marks both on the surface (upper right) and inside the 16-mm-diameter drill hole (center) of this “Windjana” drill site. (C) ChemCam-measured soil targets. (D) The Remote Micro-Imager on ChemCam shoots high-focus photos of distant targets, such as this area in the Peace Vallis alluvial fan, approximately 25 km away. Credit: Francis et al., Sci. Robot. 2, eaan4582 (2017) Examples of AEGIS fixing human commands that miss the mark, called “autonomous pointing refinement.” (A, C) Human-calculated targets in red. (B, D) Target refinement by AEGIS indicated in red. Credit: Francis et al., Sci. Robot. 2, eaan4582 (2017)
Credit: CC0 Public Domain More information: Chloé Laubu et al. Pair-bonding influences affective state in a monogamous fish species, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2019). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2019.0760 When humans pair-bond in a sexually monogamous relationship, there is an element of emotion involved—but what about other animals? That was the question the researchers sought to answer. To learn more, they conducted experiments with convict cichlid fish in their lab.In the wild, convict cichlid fish mate monogamously. After mating, when the female produces eggs, the males hang around to protect her and the eggs. And after the eggs hatch, the young are protected by both parents. To learn more about the bonds they forge, the researchers conducted a two-part experiment.In the first part of the experiment, the researchers separated a large tank into three sections. They placed a female in the middle tank and a male in each of the other two sections. The team watched to see which she demonstrated a preference for by cozying up to one or the other. The researchers then put one of the males in with the female and allowed them to mate. They report that the females who were allowed to mate with their preferred choice spawned faster, had more offspring and took better care of them compared to those paired with a rejected male. To effectively measure each fish’s mental response to separation, researchers from the University of Burgundy in Dijon trained females to use their mouths to open two small boxes, placed either side of their tanks To effectively measure each fish’s mental response to separation, researchers from the University of Burgundy in Dijon trained females to use their mouths to open two small boxes, placed either side of their tanks The same set-up was used for experiments 1 and 2. The box in the front of the tank was only introduced in experiment 2. Credit: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2019). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2019.0760 © 2019 Science X Network In the second part of the experiment, the researchers trained the females to recognize the difference between a box containing food and one that was empty. Then, they introduced a new box that required investigation to determine if it held food. The level of interest interest they showed in investigating the new box was considered a marker of her mood. They found that when her chosen mate was present in the tank with her, she expressed far more interest in checking out the new box than if the rejected male was with her. The researchers claim this is an example of “pessimistic bias,” demonstrating that the females do become gloomier when separated from their desired mate. Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B Female guppy fish choose sperm from preferred males A team of researchers at the University of Burgundy has found that a certain type of monogamous female fish exhibits a pessimistic bias when separated from its mate. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the group describes experiments they conducted with convict cichlid fish and what they found. Citation: Monogamous fish found to show pessimistic bias when separated from mate (2019, June 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-06-monogamous-fish-pessimistic-bias.html The same set-up was used for experiments 1 and 2. The box in the front of the tank was only introduced in experiment 2. Credit: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2019). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2019.0760 Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Music lovers in the Capital can gear up for their annual date with folk and Bollywood. Delhi Government announced the annual Qutub Festival on Wednesday. This time too, the festival that features modern contemporary music against the backdrop of the magnificent Qutab Minar, is going heavy on Bollywood. The five-day music fest will feature top Bollywood singers like Shan, Hariharan, Shreya Ghosal, Mohit Chauhan along with Pakistani Sufi singer Arif Lohar who shot to fame with his song Jugni which was incorporated in the Saif Ali Khan, Deepika Padukone starrer Cocktail. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting”Right from its inception, Qutub Festival has elucidated euphoric response from the people of Delhi. Held on the backdrop of the world famous Qutab Minar, the festival has a unique character and gives soul-stirring experience,’ said Rawail Singh, secretary, Punjabi Academy which is organising the festival along with Department of Art, Culture and Languages, Government of Delhi. ‘Big names from the Bollywood music industry in different genres will perform under one roof. We are confident and sure that the audience will appreciate and welcome this musical extravaganza with open arms. This festival will showcase a different musical marvel every day,’ he added. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe first day of the festival will also feature the band Astitva, a multi-genre Hindi band formed in 2007. Their songs are a blend of rock, jazz and Hindustani classical, with Hindi and Urdu lyrics. The event is a part of the ongoing Delhi Celebrates, an initiative by Delhi chief minister Sheila Dikshit to showcase the culture of India and the national capital. Entry to the festival is through free passes that will be available in Dilli Haat (both Pitampura and INA), Delhi Tourism Office in Baba Kharak Singh Marg and Punjabi Academy in Pahargunj 12 November onwards. Schedule:15 November:Shaan & Astitva16 November: Hariharan17 November: Shreya Ghoshal18 November : Arif Lohar19 November: Mohit Chauhan
Moving away from regular art sceneries, here’s an exhibition in the Capital that gets the limelight back on portraits. Khoj International Artists Association brings Residual, a solo show of portraits by Anpu Varkey. Varkey has chosen to paint portraits of friends – many of whom are themselves artists – she has encountered done during the last three years.The portrait format in her works is used like a portal into a hyper-real realm of being. Awkward hues of reds, greens and yellow mould the face and torso, displacing the ‘model’ from any recognizable place or culture. These hues are fantasy coded within a literary text or short story; Lovecraft’s putrid green or Ballard’s vermillion skies or the morbidity in Poe’s writing. Within each face languishes the remembrance of another face, posthumously read in fiction or built up by the artist’s imagination. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Talking about her methodology, Varkey says: ‘The colorised skin-tones condition the works to be less referential to the ‘real’. A rapid addition and subtraction of colour through various sittings creates the form – the residue. Small strokes form gashes in the face that belie no recognizable face. I have disparate interests in painting and portraiture is one of them.’The portraiture sessions are a series of informal encounters between the artist and model (always a friend). Their finality is arrived at through various permutations of colour combinations, which can be unending or stunted depending on the frequency of the model’s attendance. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixVarkey completed her MFA from MSU, Baroda before getting a Diploma in Fine Arts at Central St. Martins Byam Shaw School of Art, London, UK in 2005. The artist was born in August 1980 in Bangalore, India. She lives and works in New Delhi, India.The rich bold strokes and contemplative expressions seen in the works makes this exhibition a must visit.WHERE: Khoj Studios, Khirkee Extension WHEN: On till 27 October, 11 am to 7 pm
The last leg of Sunburn Arena came to a close in the city with DJ Tiesto playing for a packed ‘field’. And what a performance it was! And though we must mention that the horrors of terrible parking and long lines can be forgotten for the two hours of absolute crazy EDM and the sky touching energy levels at the concert – we do wish we had a little more of the man!The 3-city tour covering Mumbai, Bangalore and Delhi was only the music icon’s second trip to the country in almost a decade. The World No. 2 did not disappoint, pulling off an adrenaline pumping set that brought down the house bringing an electrifying end to the season-ending. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Shailendra Singh, the man behind Sunburn spoke about the growing popularity of EDM in India and called it the moot reason for a concert like this to function so well.DJ Tiesto spoke to Millennium Post about what he does best – drive the crowds wild. ‘India is great! Each country is unique but India has great fans with tons of energy. This is my second time in India. I came here back in 2008. I really like India, it has a very distinctive culture,’ says the DJ. So where did the music mania come from? ‘I grew up in Breda. We’re all influenced by our surroundings and Holland had a big influence on me. There are so many great producers and DJs from Holland, so kids look up to them. As a teen I used to listen to a lot of rock music. Def Leppard, Van Halen, Iron Maiden to name a few. Later started DJing for local house parties in my teens,’ he explains. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixAnd the biggest moment for Tiesto? ‘Performing at Olympics is one of the memorable experience along with a lot of other amazing performances. I played on the beach in Rio De Janeiro for over 250,000 people which is another gig I can’t forget!’ comes the pat reply! For our ears only, how is Tiesto off the console? ‘I don’t really concern myself so much with titles. I focus on making music, my shows and the fans. I love sports so that’s always a great way for me to unwind,’ says the man and we are all smiles!
Kolkata: Police have arrested nine persons from North 24-Parganas’ Naihati for their alleged involvement in an interstate kidney smuggling racket.Acting on a tip off, a team of investigators raided a rented house in Mitra Para area of Naihati where the accused had taken shelter for quite sometime. According to the preliminary investigation, police suspect that the accused had been operating the racket from the house. They also suspect that the accused might be a part of an interstate smuggling racket. It was learnt that an employee of the Naihati Municipality had helped the accused to rent the house, which belongs to one Biswajit. The owner of the house has also been arrested by the police along with Sarfaraz Ahmed, Md Iqbal and Bharati Chetri and others. According to the police, Bharati is from Assam. After interrogating the accused, police came to know the name of Md Akhtar who is believed to be the kingpin. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsCops are conducting raids to nab the kingpin. They are trying to know the modus operandi of the racket as to how the accused had collected the kidneys and where they used to the sell them. Preliminary investigation suggests that many of the accused, arrested in the incident might have been working as agents whose job was to find customers.It can be said that city police also arrested a youth for his alleged involvement in a kidney racket. The incident took place on 11 April when the accused Suman Sinha, alias Samir, was aimlessly loitering around at a private hospital in Mukundapur area. He was held by the police from Purba Jadavpur police station.
Darjeeling: The demand for declaring North Bengal and the Gorkhaland Territorial Administration areas as a ‘Scheduled Area’ resonated on Monday.Binay Tamang, President, Gorkha Janmukti Morcha, has demanded that the Union government immediately grant ‘Scheduled Area’ status to North Bengal and the GTA areas. Incidentally, ‘Scheduled Areas’ are socially and economically backward areas. Scheduled areas find mention in the 5th schedule of the Indian Constitution under Article 244(1). Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeStates like Chattisgarh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Jharkhand, Himachal Pradesh have been granted ‘Scheduled Areas’. Tamang on his way back to Darjeeling from Delhi, talking to media persons at Bagdogra Airport said: “Both North Bengal and the GTA areas are socially and economically backward areas. If the Government can declare economically sound areas in Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and other states, then why not North Bengal and the GTA areas?” questioned Tamang. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedHe alleged that the BJP was indulging in vote politics in the Hills. “Twice we elected BJP MPs for Gorkhaland. They had also assured that they would incorporate 11 Gorkha communities in the Scheduled Tribe list. Forget Gorkhaland, they have not done anything for the schedule tribe status as well,” stated Tamang. He stated that the BJP Government by using central forces had prevented the GJM from observing their foundation day on October 7 in Delhi. “They threatened to arrest me and did not even allow a cultural programme. The BJP complain that there is no democracy in West Bengal but I found that there is no democracy in the capital of this country. We were humiliated,” retorted Tamang. The GJM plans to hold a massive rally in Delhi after Diwali. “Whether they give us permission, even if we are arrested, we will go ahead with the rally,” added Tamang. Tamang alleged that all of this was the handiwork of SS Ahluwalia, BJP MP from Darjeeling.
Researchers, one of whom is of Indian-origin, have discovered that lower levels of a hormone may make teenagers vulnerable to gaining unhealthy weight. “Our study is the first to look at levels of spexin in the pediatric population,” said one of the study authors Seema Kumar from Mayo Clinic Children’s Centre in Minnesota, US. Potentially tied to weight management, spexin is also believed to have a role in controlling arterial blood pressure as well as salt and water balance. “Previous research has found reduced levels of this hormone in adults with obesity. Overall, our findings suggest spexin may play a role in weight gain, beginning at an early age,” she added. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The study was published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. The study analysed spexin levels in 51 obese, and 18 teenagers of normal weights between ages 12 and 18. The participants had blood samples taken between 2008 and 2010 as part of separate clinical trials. Researchers tested the blood samples to measure spexin levels. They divided the teenagers into four groups based on their spexin levels. Among the participants with the lowest levels of spexin, the odds of having obesity were a little more than five times higher than in the group with the highest levels of the hormone. “Since this is a cross-sectional study, more research is needed to explore the physiological significance of spexin, how it may be involved in the development of childhood obesity, and whether it can be used to treat or manage the condition,” she added.
Don’t just stick to tea and ‘pakoras when the rain clouds gather. Add variety to your monsoon snack list, say experts. Noah Barnes, Executive Chef at The Hungry Monkey, Naresh Guglani, Corporate Chef at Del Monte, and Neeraj Balasubramanian, Executive Chef at The Park, Visakhapatnam, suggest some snacking ideas.* Tomato and cheese bruschetta: Place sliced bread on a baking tray, drizzle extra virgin olive oil, chopped garlic and any dried spice available in the kitchen cabinet, bake till golden brown. Top with chopped tomatoes, cheese and chopped basil. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf* Pizza pockets: Place pizza dough (cut in 3-inch diameter circles) on a baking tray, drizzle olive oil and chopped garlic, top with chopped tomatoes and pizza sauce, add generous amounts of big cubes of mozzarella and cream cheese. Fold to form a semi-circle (half moon) to seal the edges. Bake at 180 degree Celsius for six to seven minutes. Serve hot with cheese oozing out.* Banana prune and chocolate toasties: Slice a few bananas, get some Del Monte Prunes, break a fruit and nut chocolate bar into small pieces and mix them. Apply butter on both sides of sliced bread or sliced brioche, fill the banana, prunes and chocolate mixture and make toasties in sandwich griller. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsive* Stuffed mushrooms: Mix breadcrumbs, chopped mushroom stems and grated Parmesan cheese with a table spoon of a pizza pasta sauce; stuff into mushroom caps, drizzle olive oil and bake at 400 degrees F for 30 minutes.* Asian lettuce wraps: To make the filling, heat oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Add onion, ginger, lemongrass and garlic, and cook for seven to 10 minutes, or until onions are soft and beginning to brown. Add tofu and water chestnuts, breaking tofu into small crumbles; cook for four minutes, or until heated through. Stir in soy, hoisin and Sriracha sauce. Transfer to serving bowl. Place lettuce leaves on platter, and set out garnishes in small serving bowls. Let guests wrap tofu mixture in lettuce leaves, and top with their choice of garnish. * Chicken pineapple and olive spears: In a saucepan over medium heat, add the ketchup, soy sauce, honey, mustard, sugar, garlic and lemon juice. Bring to a simmer and cook gently until thickened for about 10 minutes. Set aside and cool.Heat an outdoor grill or a grill pan. Cut each chicken thigh into two pieces. Peel the pineapple and cut it into one or one-and-half-inch chunks. Alternating between the chicken, olives and pineapple, thread the pieces onto the skewers. Brush them with olive oil and season them with salt and pepper. Remove the garlic cloves from the barbecue sauce and discard; put about half the sauce into a small bowl for later. Brush skewers with some of the sauce. Cook them on the grill, basting regularly with the barbecue sauce, until cooked through, about 10 to 15 minutes. Serve with reserved barbecue sauce on the side for dipping.